How We Receive Information–From the Telegraph to the Associated Press

A brief history on the speed of obtaining information beginning with the telegraph and the Associated Press.

History Timeline of the Telegraph

5554823_f260

Although the electric telegraph is outdated as a means of communication, if you think about it, its behavior of transmitting electric signals through wires from one place to the next as a method of communicating was phenomenal for its time. The timeline below is a window for those who deserve credit with their ideas and inventions, but it does not pay homage to every individual involved with inventions and extraordinary innovation on the subject of the evolvement of communication methods.

  • 1794 – Claude Chappe invented the non-electric telegraph which was replaced by the electric telegraph.
  • 1809 – Samuel Soemmering invented a crude type of telegraph using wires and gold electrodes in water. The message was read by the amount of gas caused by electrolysis.
  • 1820 – Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish physicist, discovers electric current in a wire will generate a magnetic field that deflects a compass needle.
  • 1825 – William Sturgeon, British inventor, created the idea of the electromagnet.
  • 1828 – Harrison Dyar invented the first telegraph used in the United States. His method generated burned dots and dashes used on paper tape that was chemically treated initiated by electrical sparks.
  • 1830 – Joseph Henry, an American inventor, brought more attention to Sturgeon’s method showing the benefit of the electromagnet for communicating by long distance. He sent electronic currents over a wire measuring a mile which caused an electromagnet to deploy the striking of a bell.
  • 1837 – William Cooke, British physicist, and Charles Wheatstone designed a telegraph under their own patent with the principle of electromagnetism.
  • 1848 – Associated Press is formed.
  • 1900 – Fredrick Creed came up with the Creed Telegraph System in which code could be converted to text.
  • 1913 – Western Union developed a method which would allow eight messages to be sent at once.
  • 1927 – Western Union came up with the first auto facsimile machine.
  • 1959 – TELEX is born.

Samuel Morse

Morse

I don’t know how many people are aware of the fact that Samuel Morse was an artist. In the early 1800s, he attended the Royal Academy of Arts in London. After he returned to the states, he opened a studio in Boston. In 1819, he was commissioned to paint a portrait of President James Monroe. In 1823, he opened an art studio in New York City. In 1826, Morse became the founder as well as president of the National Academy of Design. In September of 1837, Morse stepped away from painting to devote his time to the telegraph.

Although Samuel Morse proved signals could be transmitted by wire, it wasn’t until 1843 that he and his associates were funded $30,000 from Congress to aid in constructing a telegraph line from Baltimore to Washington D.C. The experiment wasn’t a success, so they put the wires above ground. The first news to be dispatched to the Capitol was transmitted in 1844. Later, private funds were obtained by Morse to have a line extended to the states of New York and Philadelphia. Telegraph companies were opening in other parts of the country and in 1851, the year Western Union began, the telegraph was the method to dispatch trains. Morse’s original telegraph printed code on tape and a well-trained operator could send up to 50 words per minute.

Once Morse is successful in receiving a patent on his invention of the telegraph, he begins receiving royalties. With the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, the telegraph was widely used by both sides involved in the war.

In 1871, a statue of Morse is set on display in New York’s Central Park. Morse relays a message of goodbye to everyone, especially his fan base. He dies the following year.

With the development of the telegraph, instead of news being circulated via the railroad or other means (e.g., Pony Express), it was transmitted instantly between cities. There were other benefits thorugh the use of the telegraph relating to business and financial opportunities, but was to be ultimately replaced by the invention of the telephone. Western Union, however, still operates in sending telegrams and transmitting money orders.

The Associated Press

From old keys …

typewriter

…to new keys – to achieve the similar end result remains the same.

keyboard

How many times can we pick up a newspaper or read news on-line and not see the article was from an Associated Press (AP) contributor? The AP has one of the largest digital archives of photographs in the world and this news organization has received more photo Pulitzers than any other organization of the same caliber. It is a not-for-profit news cooperative formed in 1846 by Moses Yale Beachand. In 1848, the AP formed and pooled telegraph traffic of news related stories.

Interestingly, in February 1861, Abraham Lincoln is en route to his inauguration in Washington, D.C. and an AP reporter, Henry Villard, who has a relationship with Lincoln manages to obtain his notes for his inaugural address to communicate same by telegraph.

News and stories relating to the Civil War were communicated by telegraph by AP reporters. In 1866, with the completion of a telegraph cable between Europe and North America, international news is highlighted.

With the inception of the Teletype, AP could take the news in a whole different direction. “Teletype,” was a trade name for a particular brand of printing telegraph, but it became a generic term for printing telegraphs from other manufacturers. The type of technology it used was the principal technology for printing telegraphs. Similar to a telegraph, the Teletype operated over circuits. The sound effects of a Teletype are still used on some radio stations as background noise while the news is being delivered.

AP and its longstanding organization of historical journalism has an history archive on its site for those who are interested, and with modern technology, a reader can find AP news stories on social networking sites.

Advertisements

How Did the Invention of the Radio Affect the Profitability or Circulation of Newspapers?

When the radio was invented, how threatened were newspapers?  Overall, the real threat to newspapers and the radio was the television.  So, just how affected were newspapers with the inception of the radio?

Image

Tuning Into the Radio

After the invention of the radio, readers of newspapers starting turning the dial to hear the news instead of reading about it. In the early 1930s, FM radio was invented and listeners no longer had to hear static in the background. As more people tuned in, though, newspapers’ advertisers were losing money. Thousands to millions of people were obtaining radio receivers worldwide. The radio became a replacement of the method of communication to the world, but it was also a new and exciting practice. With the radio and the millions of listeners, though, broadcasters needed to be aware of their social responsibility.

We know the benefits of the radio and that advertising could be sold on the radio instead of newspapers, but how did newspapers respond to profits being affected? Just as the internet affects our immediacy of obtaining the news, so did the radio during its inception. And, if you had a radio, you could hear information before your newspaper was delivered. What made the radio appealing to advertisers was the fact that when radio stations were formed (CBS and NBC), time slots could be sold to advertisers, but what did the advertisers really know about their potential buying public?

Has anyone ever asked a grandparent whether they listened to the famous “War of the Worlds” broadcast was recalled? It was aired in 1938 on Halloween.

Also, with wartime broadcasting on the airwaves, families would gather to listen to Edward R. Murrow’s reporting in his journalistic fashion.

Image

Newspapers Survive the Invention of the Radio

Keep in mind that newspapers were a main source of information prior to the invention of the radio so competition became a viable factor to keep up with sales, especially how profits for advertisers were affected. This country’s history has been dependent on acquiring news and information from newspapers. The radio affected newspaper circulation. While the radio could provide a major headliner in a brief five minute’s worth of highlights, a listerner would still have had to rely on the newspaper to collect all the details.

Remember, too, that periodicals like “Time” magazine were also affecting the circulation of newspapers. With the crash of the stock market, a third of the population unemployed, a lot of the advertisers switched from newspapers to radio. Allegedly, there were 75,000 sales of radios in 1921 which rose to over 13 million in 1930. The radio, however, impacted several aspects of life in America and it wasn’t limited to news–it provided music and entertainment outside of advertisements.

Newspapers, for good reason, were concerned the radio was going to run them out of business. They forbid radio stations to just read the news from their pages until after papers were delivered. But, in time, stations like CBS Radio developed its own news department.

Newspaper giants like William Randolph Hearst even put some of his own money into keeping his papers alive. Just as the radio had to get more creative when the television was developed, so, too, did newspapers. Even with newspaper competitors, the weaker papers were going out of business and the elite papers were becoming more popular like “The New York Times” and “The Washington Post.”

Also, for those who didn’t read well anyway, the radio was more attractive because all people had to do was listen. Interestingly, once television arrived, both radio and newspapers were competing against the new form of media.

You Can’t Stop Technology, Inventions or Innovation

At best, the newpapers carried a fear they would be rendered some day as possibly obsolete with the demand for radio. What they had to do was get more creative. I’m not talking about the radio being another tool to deliver propoganda, but it was definitely another way to reach the public regardless of what a broadcaster was providing as a message to society as a whole. Families were still buying newspapers if they could afford them and people who would resist change would continue receiving a newspaper. Certainly, the newspapers didn’t want to lose any “power” to a source delivering both language and audio, which would provide persuasiveness to a greater effect.

The newer and faster of any communication tool will always be improved upon so that it is better and faster. Newspapers used to feel the radio was going to destroy effective journalism and democracy. That hasn’t happened as far as I know. There may be certain annoying broadcasters on public radio, but there’s a dial or button that can change that.

In time, just as the newspapers had the Associated Press, radio started its wire services. The battle between newspapers and radio in the early part of the 20th Century was much different than the effect of the internet on newspapers because they can publish on-line. The internet will basically become the newspaper choice of the public because it’s faster and accessible on demand. People will turn on their laptop or pads to the newspapers that will continue to be popular to anyone interested. The radio has become a source of entertainment to a large extent. You can watch the news 24/7 on your television now, but if you want to stay up and read the news, you have that option now with other tools since you can’t take your television to bed with you.